Wednesday, February 21, 2018

Current bank regulators should undergo a psychological test. They clearly seem to be afflicted by “false safety behavior”

I extract the following from “False Safety Behaviors: Their Role in Pathological Fear” by Michael J. Telch, Ph.D. 

“What are false safety behaviors? 

We define false safety behaviors (FSBs) as unnecessary actions taken to prevent, escape from, or reduce the severity of a perceived threat. There is one specific word in this definition that distinguishes legitimate adaptive safety behaviors - those that keep us safe - from false safety behaviors - those that fuel anxiety problems? If you picked the word unnecessary you’re right! But when are they unnecessary? Safety behaviors are unnecessary when the perceived threat for which the safety behavior is presumably protecting the person from is bogus.”

The risk weighted capital requirements for banks, more perceived risk more capital – less perceived risk less capital, fits precisely that of being unnecessary. If a risk is perceived the banker will naturally take defensive measures, like limiting the exposure or charging higher risk premiums. If there is a real risk that is of the assets being perceived ex ante as safe, but turning up ex post as risky.

The consequences of such false safety behavior by current bank regulators are severe:

They set banks up to having the least capital when the most dangerous event can happen, something very safe turning very risky. 

Equally, or even more dangerous, it distorts the allocation of bank credit to the real economy, it hinder the needed “riskier” financing of the future, like entrepreneurs, in order to finance the “safer” present, like house purchases and sovereigns.

It creates a false sense of security because why should anyone really expect that “experts” picked the wrong risks to weigh, the intrinsic risk of the asset, instead of the risk of the asset for the banking system.

I quote again from the referenced document:


“How do false safety behaviors fuel anxiety? 

There seems to be a growing consensus that FSB’s fuel pathological anxiety in several different ways. One way in which FSBs might do their mischief is by keeping the patient’s bogus perception of threat alive through a mental process called misattribution. Misattribution theory asserts that when people perform unnecessary safety actions to protect themselves from a perceived threat, they falsely conclude (misattribute) their safety to the use of the FSB, thus leaving their perception of threat intact. Take for instance, the flying phobic who copes with their concern that the plane will crash by repeatedly checking the weather prior to the flight’s departure and then misattributes her safe flight to her diligent weather scanning rather than the inherent safety of air travel.” 

In this respect stress tests and living wills could perhaps be identified as “unnecessary safety actions” the “checking of the weather”. 

Finally: “FSBs may fuel anxiety problems by also interfering with the basic process through which people come to learn that some of their perceived threats are actually not threats at all…threat disconfirmation…For this important perceived threat reduction process to occur, not only must new information be available but it also must be processed.”

The 2007/08 crisis provided all necessary information on that the risk weighting did not work, since all bank assets that became very problematic, had in common low capital requirements since they were perceived as safe. And this information has simply not been processed.

Conclusion, I am not a psychologist but given that our banking system operates efficiently is of utmost importance, perhaps a psychological screening of all candidates to bank regulators should be a must. Clearly the current members of the Basel Committee and of the Financial Stability Board, and those engaged with bank regulations in many central banks, would not pass such test.

I feel sorry for them, especially after finding on the web someone referring to "anxiety disorder" with: “I don’t think people understand how stressful it is to explain what’s going on in your head when you don’t even understand it yourself”


  

Friday, February 16, 2018

ECB’s Sabine Lautenschläger explains why the risk weighted capital requirements for banks is total lunacy but, unfortunately, not even she hears it.

I quote the following from ECB’s Sabine Lautenschläger’s speech on February 15, 2018, “A stable financial system – more than the sum of its parts” 

“Logic can be a tricky thing. Apply it in the right way, and you always arrive at a consistent conclusion. But apply it in the wrong way, and it can lead you astray. And that happens all too easily. There are indeed many wrong ways in which we can apply logic.”

One of them is known as the fallacy of composition. It refers to the idea that the whole always equals the sum of its parts. Well, that idea is wrong. As we all know, the whole can be more than the sum of its parts – or less.

Consider this statement: if each bank is safe and sound, the banking system must be safe and sound as well. By now, we have learnt the hard way that this might indeed be a fallacy of composition.

Let me give you just one example. Imagine that a certain asset suddenly becomes more risky. Each bank that holds this asset might react prudently by selling it. However, if many banks react that way, they will drive down the price of the asset. This will amplify the initial shock, might affect other assets, and a full-blown crisis might result. Each bank has behaved prudently, but their collective behaviour has led to a crisis.

The business of banking is ripe with externalities, with potential herding and with contagion. These factors may not be visible when looking at individual banks, but they can threaten the stability of the entire system. This is one of the core insights from the financial crisis.”

Let me comment on the implications of this quite lengthy quotation: 

First: “a certain asset suddenly becomes more risky” That means that the real problem is that it was perceived as safer before.

Second: “The business of banking is ripe with externalities, with potential herding and with contagion.” There can be no doubt that potential herding” is much mote likely to occur with assets perceived as safe.

So what is Sabine Lautenschläger really saying with all this? That the current risk weighted capital requirements, Pillar 1, more perceived risk more capital – less perceived risk less capital, is sheer lunacy, though she might not understand it. 

The truth is that the real logic, not that pseudo logic applied by bank regulators, is that the safer an asset is perceived, the greater the potential danger to the bank system it poses.

Lautenschläger also said: “Imagine that there is a downturn in the financial cycle. From the viewpoint of each bank, credit risks increase and microprudential supervisors may want to increase Pillar 2 capital demands. Looking at the same trend, macroprudential supervisors might want to support credit growth and counter the cycle over a longer time horizon and from a systemic point of view. Thus, they may want to decrease Pillar 2 capital demands.”

“credit risks increase” That goes in the direction from safer to riskier. Does going from riskier to safer pose any danger? No!

So is not assigning the lowest capital requirements to what is ex ante perceived as safe just the mother of procyclical regulations, or in other words, the mother of all macroprudential imprudences? 

Ex post dangers are a function of ex ante perceptions. The safer something is perceived the more real danger it poses. The riskier something is perceived, the less harm it can cause.

How on earth could one expect a good application of Basel Committee’s Pillar 2 (Supervisory Review Process) from those who are messing it all up with a so faulty Pillar 1?

Recommendation: Ask a regulator: “What is more dangerous to the bank system, that which is perceived risky or what is perceived safe?” If he answers, the “risky”, ban him from regulating banks.

Tuesday, January 30, 2018

Basel III - sense and sensitivity”? No! Much more “senseless and insensitivity”

I refer to the speech titled “Basel III - sense and sensitivity” on January 29, 2018 by Ms Sabine Lautenschläger, Member of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank and Vice-Chair of the Supervisory Board of the European Central Bank.

“Senseless and insensitive” is how I would define it. It evidences that regulators have still no idea about what they are doing with their risk weighted capital requirements for banks.

Ms Lautenschläger said: With Basel III we have not thrown risk sensitivity overboard. And why would we? Risk sensitivity helps align capital requirements with actual levels of risk and supports an efficient capital allocation. It prevents arbitrage and risk shifting. And risk-sensitive rules promote sound risk management.

“Risk sensitivity helps align capital requirements with actual levels of risk and supports an efficient capital allocation” No! The ex ante perceived risk of assets is, in a not distorted market aligned to the capital by means of the size of exposure and the risk premium charged. Considering the perceived risk in the capital too, means doubling down on perceived risks; and any risk, even if perfectly perceived, if excessively considered causes the wrong actions.

“It prevents arbitrage” No! It stimulates arbitrage. Bankers have morphed from being diligent loan officers into too diligent equity minimizers. 

“It prevents risk shifting.” No! It shifts the risks from assets perceived as risky to risky excessive exposures to assets perceived as safe.

“It promote sound risk management” No! With banks that compete by offering high returns on equity, allowing some assets to have lower capital requirements than other, makes that impossible.

Ms Lautenschläger said: “for residential mortgages, the input floor increases from three basis points to five basis points. Five basis points correspond to a once-in-2,000 years default rate! Is such a floor really too conservative?”

The “once-in-2000 years default rate on residential mortgages!” could be a good estimate on risks… if there were no distortions. But, if banks are allowed to leverage more their capital with residential mortgages and therefore earn higher expected risk adjusted returns on residential mortgages then banks will, as a natural result of the incentive, invest too much and at too low risk premiums in residential mortgages… possibly pushing forward major defaults from a “once-in-2000 years default” to one "just around the corner". That is senseless! Motorcycles are riskier than cars, but what would happen if traffic regulators therefore allowed cars to speed much faster?

I guess Basel Committee regulators have never thought on how much of their lower capital requirement subsidies are reflected in higher house prices?

Then to answer: “Does this mean that Basel III is the perfect standard - the philosopher's stone of banking regulation? Ms Lautenschläger considers “What impact will the final Basel III package have on banks - and on their business models and their capital?”

Again, not a word about how all their regulations impacts the allocation of bank credit to the real economy… as if that did not matter… that is insensitivity!

Our banks are now financing too much the “safer” present and too little the “riskier” future our children and grandchildren need and deserve to be financed.

PS. In 2015 I commented another speech by Ms Lautenschläger on the issue of “trust in banks”.

Friday, January 26, 2018

Why are not the absurd risk weighted capital requirements for banks more questioned?

John Kenneth Galbraith in his “Money: Whence it came, where it went” (1975) writes about similar silences:

“If one is pretending to knowledge one does not have, one cannot ask for explanations to support possible objections” 

“What people do not understand, they generally think important. This adds to the prestige and pleasure of the participants” 

"What politicians do not understand, adds to their fear of that in rejecting the resulting action, they may be doing serious damage”

Upton Sinclair Jr. would have been more direct with his “It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends on his not understanding it.”

Saturday, December 9, 2017

The Finalization of Basel III’s is just a photo-op for the Committee members to go home for Christmas with, as it does nothing to correct the fundamental flaws of current bank regulations.

The Basel Committee’s “Finalizing Basel III” brief states: 

1. “What is Basel III? The Basel III framework is a central element of the Basel Committee’s response to the global financial crisis. It addresses a number of shortcomings in the pre-crisis regulatory framework and provides a foundation for a resilient banking system that will help avoid the build-up of systemic vulnerabilities. The framework will allow the banking system to support the real economy through the economic cycle.”

Since the risk weighted capital requirements are kept, that is simply not true! The global financial crisis was a direct consequence of regulations that allowed banks to leverage immensely their capital as long as they kept to “safe” assets: limitless leverage with exposures to friendly sovereigns, 62.5 times with private sector exposures rated AAA to AA, and 35.7 times with residential mortgages. 

The exaggerated demand these regulations created for residential mortgages and highly rated securities, which caused serious deteriorations in their quality, and of loans to low risk decreed sovereigns, like Greece, explains 99.9% of the financial crisis.

In contrast when lending to an entrepreneur or an unrated small or medium size enterprise, as that was (is) considered risky, banks were only allowed to leverage 12.5 times. The differences in potential risk adjusted returns on equity between “safe” and “risky” assets hindered, and hinders, the banking system from adequately supporting the real economy

2. “What do the 2017 reforms do? “The 2017 reforms seek to restore credibility in the calculation of risk-weighted assets (RWAs) and improve the comparability of banks’ capital ratios. RWAs are an estimate of risk that determines the minimum level of regulatory capital a bank must maintain to deal with unexpected losses. A prudent and credible calculation of RWAs is an integral element of the risk-based capital framework.”

But the fundamental question of why it should be prudent to require banks to hold more capital against what is perceived risky, when the real dangers to the bank system is when something perceived as safe turns out risky, remains unanswered.

3. “Credibility of the framework: A range of studies found an unacceptably wide variation in RWAs across banks that cannot be explained solely by differences in the riskiness of banks’ portfolios. The unwarranted variation makes it difficult to compare capital ratios across banks and undermines confidence in capital ratios. The reforms will address this to help restore the credibility of the risk-based capital framework. 
Internal models should allow for more accurate risk measurement than the standardised approaches developed by supervisors. However, incentives exist to minimise risk weights when internal models are used to set minimum capital requirements. In addition, certain types of asset, such as low-default exposures, cannot be modelled reliably or robustly. The reforms introduce constraints on the estimates banks make when they use their internal models for regulatory capital purposes, and, in some cases, remove the use of internal models.” 

Where do regulators get the idea that if there are less-variations in RWAs, the standardized RWAs, based on how regulators perceive risks, are any more accurate? Excessive hubris? Have they forgotten their own “Standardized” risk weights? Alzheimer? 

Also, since banks should clear for perceived risks in the size of the exposures and interest rates, making them clear for those same risks in the capital too, causes an excessive consideration of perceived risks. The regulators clearly keep on ignoring that any risk, even if perfectly perceived, causes the wrong actions, if excessively considered.

That regulators now, at long last, have understood that “incentives exist to minimise risk weights when internal models are used to set minimum capital”, serves little as consolation, as it just evidences their original naiveté.

PS. As an aide memoire for the regulators to take home for Christmas here’s a list of their mistakes. Am I being nasty? No! How many millions of entrepreneurs have over the years been negated access to the life changing opportunities of a bank credit, only because of these regulators? How many young must live in the basement of their parents houses without jobs, only because regulator think it is safer to finance houses than job creation opportunities? Let’s pray all the Ebenezer Scrooge in the Basel Committee will see light one day... or at least have the decency to fade away.  




Tuesday, November 21, 2017

My tweets asking very courteously bank regulators for an explanation

Dear bank regulators, please explain your current risk weighted capital requirements for banks against these four scenarios:

1. Ex ante perceived safe – ex post turns out safe - "Just what we thought!"
2. Ex ante perceived risky – ex post turns out safe - "What a pleasant surprise! That's why I am a good banker"
3. Ex ante perceived risky – ex post turns out risky - "That's why we only lent little and at high rates to it."
4. Ex ante perceived safe – ex post turns out risky - "Now what do we do? Call the Fed for a new QE?"

Because, as I see it, from this perspective, your 20% risk weights for the dangerous AAA rated, and 150% for the so innocous below BB- sounds as loony as it gets.


Here are some of my current explanations of why I believe the risk weighted capital requirements for banks are totally wrong.

And below an old homemade youtube on this precise four scenarios issue

Thursday, November 9, 2017

When government bureaucrats are favored more than entrepreneurs in the access to bank credit, the game is soon over

In 1988, with Basel I, out of some Pandora box, for the purpose of setting the capital requirements for banks,the  regulators came up with a risk weight of 0% for sovereigns and of 100% for citizens. As a result banks need to hold much less equity when lending to sovereigns than when lending to citizens.

That 0% risk weight was premised on that sovereigns were in possession of the money-printing machines and could therefore always repay. I am sure the Medici’s would have shivered hearing such a generous risk assessment.

So, since then, banks have been allowed to leverage much more with loans to sovereigns than with loans to citizens; and therefore obtain much higher risk adjusted returns on equity when lending to sovereigns than when for instance lending to entrepreneurs. 

That de facto implies believing in that a government bureaucrat can use bank credit that he himself has not to repay, better than an entrepreneur.

That alone should suffice to make clear how loony and statist the current bank regulations are.

But the world keeps mum on this. As I see it this is a regulatory crime against humanity that should be punishable.

Here is a more extensive explanation of the mistakes of risk weighted capital requirements for banks.

Saturday, November 4, 2017

Crimes against humanity can also be committed through subtle and nonviolent means, like with bank regulations

Let us suppose a continuation of regulators who, in order for banks not to crash under their respective watch, decreed that banks should concentrate all their activity lending to “infallible” sovereigns, to those with good credit ratings, to the safe financing of houses; and to stay away from lending to all those who are perceived as risky.

That because they, like bankers, they looked at what could be risky for banks, and not as they should have done, as regulators, at the risks that might not be perceived.

And the consequences of it is that millions of those who though they are perceived as risky could help the economy move forward and generate new jobs, such as SMEs and entrepreneurs, have their access to bank credit denied.

And so hundred of millions of our young will not get jobs and have to remain living in their parents’ basements… that is unless they revolt and send their parents down to the basements.

And yet, sooner or later, especially large bank crisis will result, because of unexpected events, or because of excessive exposures to something that was perceived, decreed or concocted as safe, but that ex post turned to be risky. And these crises are made so much worse when banks have to hold especially little capital against those ex-safe assets.

This is precisely what the risk-weighted capital requirement for the banks created by the Basel Committee for Banking Supervision cause.

These allow banks to leverage more with what is “safe” than with what is “risky” and thereby obtain higher risk adjusted returns on capital with what is “safe” than with what is “risky”.

As a direct consequence, millions of job opportunities for our young have already been lost forever; and the first big crisis already occurred in 2007-08, only that in this case the central bankers, with their quantitative easing and ultra low interest rates, kicked that can forward.

And here we are, sitting on artificially inflated stock market valuations and house prices that, when true need arises, will never be able to be converted back into the same effective real purchase power that was invested in them.

And all that huge sovereign debts accumulated in the process can only be repaid with help of the printing machine, and never in terms of the real purchase power that was invested in its generation.

And the human sufferings, and the consequent strains all this will impose on our social fabric will be immense… especially when like now in many countries it will be compounded by big demographic changes.

Does all this not indicate that these regulations could be classified as a horrendous and perhaps even punishable regulatory crime against humanity?

Or will the inquisition of the high priests of bank regulations just excommunicate me, like any Galileo?

Where do I nail these my Theses about the risk weighted capital requirements for banks, so as to at least achieve a discussion of them? 

Or will the inquisition of the high priests of bank regulations just excommunicate me, like any Galileo?

Sunday, October 29, 2017

“If you see something say something”. Yes, but it’s not easy to be a whistleblower on our too inept bank regulators.

Sir, never ever has a bank crisis of any important magnitude resulted from excessive exposures to something that was perceived as risky when placed on the balance sheets of banks.

These have always resulted from unexpected events, like major devaluations, criminal behavior or excessive exposures to something that was perceived as safe when incorporated in the balance sheets of banks but that ex post turned out to be risky.

So when bank regulators, like with their Basel II of 2004 set the risk weights for what is rated AAA at 20%, and that of the below BB- rated at 150%, then this is a too serious clue of them not knowing what they’re doing.


I have been shouting my lungs out about this basically since 1997, but it is very difficult for an ordinary citizen, even for someone who for some years was an Executive Director at the World Bank, to have someone to listen to him, when he holds that our supposed expert bank regulators left a bomb in our real economy.

PS. I will send the above letter to as many editors I can.


Financial Times
New York Times
Wall Street Journal
Washington Post
Svenska Dagbladet
The Economist

Friday, October 27, 2017

IMF, the Basel Committee’s procyclical risk weighted capital requirements puts financial cycles, global or local, on steroids

This year’s IMF Jacques Polak Annual Research Conference on November 2–3 is titled “The Global Financial Cycle.” 

It aims to bring together contributions by leading experts on the topic—from both within and outside the IMF—to improve the “understanding of a range of issues, including the causes and consequences of the global financial cycle, the transmission channels of global financial shocks, and the role of domestic policies in dampening the impact of global shocks.”

I wonder if, again, for the umpteenth time, the distortions produced by risk weighted capital requirements in the allocation of credit to the real economy will be ignored.

The following is the comment I posted on the IMF Blog

Risk weighted capital requirements, more risk more capital – less risk less capital, allows banks to earn much higher risk adjusted returns on equity with what is perceived decreed or concocted as safe, than on what is perceived as risky. 

That pushes more than ordinary the financial pursuit of “the safe” and the avoidance of “the risky”.

That de facto puts financial cycles, whether global or local, on steroids.


PS. I have now read all the papers presented in the conference and the only one that makes somewhat of a reference to risk weighted capital requirements, is “Global financial cycles and risk premiums?” authored by Oscar Jorda, Moritz Schularick, Alan M. Taylor and Felix Ward, October 2017

It includes “If banks hold foreign assets on their balance sheets and mark them to market, price changes can synchronize the risk appetite and the trading behavior of banks around the world. For instance, if Federal Reserve policy affects U.S. equity prices, falling asset prices in the U.S. decrease (risk-weighted)-asset-capital ratios of U.S. as well as international banks, which start to cut down their risk-taking in sync with U.S. banks.

If no large risk-neutral player steps in to compensate for the lower risk taking of the leverage-constrained intermediaries, risk-spreads will increase.”

But as one can see that is how financial cycles or event affect “(risk-weighted)-asset-capital ratios”, but not how these risk weighted capital requirements affect the financial cycles.

For instance Greece would never ever have been able to obtain so much debt had it not been for the ridiculous low capital requirements on that debt.

Wednesday, October 18, 2017

What’s the similitude of World Bank and IMF? That the Basel Committee has fooled them both!

World Bank has the function of development… and has ignored that risk weighted capital requirements for banks kills the risk-taking that is the oxygen of development.

IMF has the function of stability … and has ignored that bank crises are caused by excessive exposures to what’s wrongly perceived as safe, and never to what is rightly perceived as risky.

Explaining to World Bank and IMF the horrific mistakes of Basel’s bank regulations, has not been an easy journey



28:30, I am Per Kurowski, of New Rules for Global Finance

This is a question for the umpteenth time to the World Bank:

As the world’s premier development bank the World Bank must know that risk-taking is the oxygen of any development. So why is it still not speaking out against the risk-weighted capital requirements for banks that put a brake on risk-taking, like on the lending to SMEs small and medium sized enterprises…even though never ever has a major bank crisis erupted because of excessive exposures to something ex ante perceived as risky.

30:50, World Bank, Jim Yong Kim

On risk taking I am not sure I understood the question correctly, but there is, because of in many ways I think very much necessary prudential rules, the Basel process, one of the side effects of it is that it has been a systematic de-banking of many developing countries, especially in Africa. 

And so many banks Standard Chartered and others that had very strong presence in the developing world have for the most part left. And so we have a terrible time in terms of accessing capital markets in the way that they did before.

So it’s a huge concern for us, and we are continuing to engage with the Basel process and we are continuing to try to talk about some of the side effects. For example it is much more difficult and expensive to send remittances back now because these institutions don’t exist. 

And so the problem of insuring that the poorest countries have access to capital markets is very-very high on our agenda, and is really at the core of the major issue we talked about in spring meetings which is our cascade; and the cascade is essentially recognition that on the one hand it is very difficult for very good emerging markets infrastructure projects to get capital, and on the other hand there is more than 10 trillion dollars in negative interest bond, and 25 plus trillions in very low earning bonds and another 8 trillion in cash sitting in peoples safes, and they would like to get a higher return, but the perception of risk in the emerging market is so high, that the capital is just not moving.

So we are putting so much of our effort into mitigating this situation where you have great projects, great potential for building infrastructure that would lead to growth but that are not being financed; we are really focusing on filling that void on the problem I think you are pointing to.

My comment: It was not answering my real question but it was still a very valid answer. If given a chance my re-question would have been: Do you think Standard Chartered would have left those development markets had it had to hold the same capital against all its assets than what it is required to hold on loans to these markets? The answer to that is surely “No!”

35:25, IMF, Mme Christine Lagarde.

I am actually tempted to address also this question, is that okay?

Because I think it is an important point and one that has very complex ramifications. It has complex ramifications in the banking regulations business, in the banking supervision business, and in the accounting business.

And then it is at the very junction of between sort of self-established model by the banks versus models established by the supervisors. 

I think we both would agree that methods that would actually encourage the lending by banks and by insurance companies and by pension fund to SMEs, you know with the risk associated with it, should actually be very much in order.

At the moment the risk weighing methods and the models that are being used are discouraging from actually investing and taking risk to benefit the small and medium sized enterprises 

And that’s not necessarily the best avenue to support the economy and to support entrepreneurs who want to have access to financing.

My comment: Many thanks, but Mme Lagarde, it really behooves the IMF, and the World Bank, to understand why it took them about 15 years, Basel II, to see this problem.

30:50 World Bank, Jim Yong Kim

Just to add to that, we are now trying to come up with lots of different innovative approaches to de-risking those investments, taking first loss, using political risk insurance credit enhancements, lot of tools that we are using now to try to respond to the situation

My comment: That is good to hear, but beware, de-risking credits, against distorted and inadequate bank regulations, could have very bad unexpected consequences.

PS. Very much inspired by John Kenneth Galbraith’s “Money: Whence it came, where it went” (1975), I started my fight against Basel Committee’s regulations in 1997, in my very first Op-Ed “Puritanism in Banking”.

And in 2003, as an Executive Director or the World Bank, in a workshop for bank regulators I warned: “The other side of the coin of a credit that was never granted, in order to reduce the vulnerability of the financial system, could very well be the loss of a unique opportunity for growth. In this sense, I put forward the possibility that the developed countries might not have developed as fast, or even at all, had they been regulated by a Basel.”

In 2007, ten years ago, at the High-level Dialogue on Financing for Developing at the United Nations, as civil society, I presented the document: “Are the Basel bank regulations good for development?

And since then I do not know how many times, I have tried and failed to draw IMF’s and World Bank’s attention to the many very serious mistakes that are imbedded in Basel’s risk-weighted capital requirements for banks.

Have I arrived at the end of my journey? I am not 100% sure, but I do see some light J